Schema modes and mode models for cluster B and C personality disorders
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Uniwersytet Łódzki, Instytut Psychologii
Maria Finogenow   

Uniwersytet Łódzki, Instytut Psychologii
Submission date: 2019-12-20
Final revision date: 2020-02-23
Acceptance date: 2020-03-04
Publication date: 2020-06-01
Psychoter 2020;192(1):45–58
Schema therapy, created by Jeffrey Young and co-workers, is a relatively new integrative approach in psychotherapy. Although it is derived directly from cognitive theory, it also contains some elements of the attachment theory by Bowlby, transactional analysis by Berne, object-relations theory, Gestalt, and person-centred concepts. The key notion in the model by Young and co-workers relates to Early Maladaptive Schemas, which are referred to as general overwhelming motives or patterns that comprise recollections, emotions, beliefs, and physical experiences. The first description of the schema model turned out to have some limitations in the clinical treatment of patients with serious personality disorders. Young proposed Schema Modes Model as a more effective alternative to be used in the treatment of the disorders. After development of the mode model for borderline and narcissistic personality disorder, also models for other personality disorders were elaborated. The article is aimed at presenting the schema modes and the mode models for persons with personality disorders. There are presented mode models for cluster B personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, antisocial) and for cluster C personality disorders (avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive).