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Psychoter 2005;135(4):23–49
The article is a theoretical part of the work written as part of the requirement to obtain a degree in the European Institute of Psychodrama in Berlin (das Psychodrama Institut fur Europa PIfE). It concerns the subject of death, which is a difficult, traumatic area of experience, rarely brought up in the psychodramatic literature. The concept of death is understood here very widely - symbolically and in real life. The reality encompasses not only the physical dimension (the ill or dying body), but also the psychological dimension (the experience of suffering and its awareness), the social dimension (a lack of closeness with the other human) and the spiritual dimension (transcendentalism, which is understood as going beyond the human dimension, the consciousness of being a cosmic and divine creature; it includes the possibility of exchanging the role with God on the psychodramatic scene). This integral approach to the process of treatment, requiring the consolidation of all four dimensions is consistent with the therapeutic philosophy of J.L. Moreno, which is opposed to the model of other psychotherapies which are considered reductionistic by the token of them perceiving the cause of human suffering inside the individual. As a theoretical topic for any psychodramatic work on the issue of death, four universalities of Moreno were assumed: time, place (for example the scene), space and reality (surplus reality). They are considered from an objective/physical perspective as well as from the subjective/mental/internal perspective, and also from the perspective of the pathology of experiencing it. A discussion of the issues of the therapeutic goals on the subject of death, understood as encountering the death of a relative or someone close, as well as coming face to face with one's own death conclude the theoretical part of this work. The clinical part of the work, which will be published in the upcoming issue of Psychoterpia will provide examples of psychodramas with patients which lead to the integration and their own rebirth in all of the forementioned dimensions.