Preferowane wartości a zdrowie i satysfakcja z życia   
Psychoter 2007;140(1):5–25
The authors systematically analyze the effect of two types of values - namely materialistic (economic) values and religious ones - on health indicators (psychical and physical) and life satisfaction. These values have been chosen because not only they are different, but also antagonistic - an inverse relationship between them has been established. Results of many investigations show that concentration on materialistic values can lead to lower life satisfaction. Furthermore, individuals who focus on materialistic values score lower on various types of adjustment and psychical health indicators. This could be explained by an attempt to satisfy in this way or rather substitute satisfying various needs, especially social ones - the realization of which requires much more time and competences. On the other hand, concentration on religious values seems to be an important factor associated with better health and adjustment, particularly in stressful situations. Many researchers emphasize positive consequences of social and spiritual support, which is experienced by religious people. However these results are not that consistent. A promising attempt to explain these contradictory results seems to be the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Summing up, it is healthy to prefer values that lead people to personal growth, applying inner standards of evaluation, and self transcendence. On the contrary, values based on fear and external locus of evaluation are negatively associated with health.