O stawaniu się człowiekiem według J.P. Sartre'a 5
About the project to be in the thought of J. P. Sartre 5
The paper presents the concept of personality as formulated by J.P.Sartre based on his work "Being and Nothingness" (Gallimard, Paris 1943). The characteristic point of Sartre's theory of personality is accepting as elements of the structure of personality the internal processes (a project to be) and defining personality as non-natural but a creative system composed of functional structure. The background of Sartre's theory is the concept of becoming, understood widely as an intentional action of the subject in the world he perceives and comprehends. It is additionally accompanied by a specific concept of identity. Identity is understood as relation required for the most favourable functioning of the subject. The personality of the subject and all motivational processes to become a personality, occur within the basic psychological unit: Individual-World. Sartre detailed on his work "Being and Nothingness" how the construction of the own personality is part of the project to be of human reality, fleeing from finitude and its ground, in a situation it never chose. Sartre described also how faced, with this finite freedom, the human personality for the most part is the choice of avoiding its genuine choices in order to vainly attempt to achieve a Godlike freedom that would first choose its situation and then choose again, on the basis of being its own source of foundation. He argued also that the personality is a spontaneous upsurge into the world. Sartre's conception of personality is an example of a holistic approach. It constitutes a theoretical draft with elements of systematic theory. The method of investigation used by Sartre is a phenomenological analysis of the various possible presentations of the phenomenon under study, varying in free play, has been repeatedly overlooked and misunderstood. It seems that this analysis (used already by Husserl) has a potential heuristic power and discovers the essence of personality very well.
The text also discusses fundamental question about psychotherapeutic help. Sartre confirmed that nobody can help anyone without accepting human freedom. Everybody is able to accept or to reject this freedom. For Sartre, however, human freedom is a total responsibility and an ungrounded upsurge, inseparable from the totality, its situation, its context. For Sartre, the flight from the situatedness of human existence, attempted through belief in an "empirical personality" (ego) as an absolute foundation is only reinforced by the philosopher's theorizing of a transcendental ego as the agent of consciousness. Only liberty can be an absolute foundation of the human personality or human ego and every psychotherapy has to help men to understand this.
Aspekty filozofii J.L. Moreno - kontynuatora tradycji we współczesnej duchowości 11
Some aspects of J.L. Moreno's philosophy - a continuator of tradition in current spirituality 11
Some facts from the psychodrama founder J. L. Moreno's childhood and adolescence are presented. They go back to his attending the Jewish school in Bucharest as well as to his mystical experience in Chemnitz, helping to understand his spirituality and "source of creativity" concepts. The concepts may be controversial to some of the readers
Psychodrama i psychoanaliza - podejście integracyjne 15
Psychodrama and psychoanalysis - an integration approach 15
This is the lecture delivered by the author at the 8th International Psychodrama Conference in Cracow. At the beginning of their development, psychodrama and psychoanalysis did not fit together and had contradictory foundations. With the development of both directions those contradictions were being reduced.
These days most psychoanalysts no longer consider themselves as the "impersonal projection screen" for the patient and also most of the psychodramatysts do not deny that in therapeutic psychodrama theatre insight plays an important part. It is now possible to integrate both directions. This integration is not so easy due to the fact that in both these approaches groups and therapists are working in significantly different ways.
In therapeutic groups led by the author psychoanalytical and psychodramatical sessions are interlacing. Often psychodrama is chosen by the patients to work with themes of deficits, traumas, separations and catharsis. For patients, the psychodramatical techniques are very often a way of understanding and illustrating different psychodynamic relations. Psychodramatical and psychoanalytical sessions should not be "separated worlds" and therefore elements of psychodrama should be applied during psychoanalytical sessions and of course on the contrary.
Temat śmierci i odrodzenia w psychodramie. Część I 23
Death and rebirth in psychodrama. Part I 23
The article is a theoretical part of the work written as part of the requirement to obtain a degree in the European Institute of Psychodrama in Berlin (das Psychodrama Institut fűr Europa PIfE). It concerns the subject of death, which is a difficult, traumatic area of experience, rarely brought up in the psychodramatic literature. The concept of death is understood here very widely - symbolically and in real life. The reality encompasses not only the physical dimension (the ill or dying body), but also the psychological dimension (the experience of suffering and its awareness), the social dimension (a lack of closeness with the other human) and the spiritual dimension (transcendentalism, which is understood as going beyond the human dimension, the consciousness of being a cosmic and divine creature; it includes the possibility of exchanging the role with God on the psychodramatic scene). This integral approach to the process of treatment, requiring the consolidation of all four dimensions is consistent with the therapeutic philosophy of J.L. Moreno, which is opposed to the model of other psychotherapies which are considered reductionistic by the token of them perceiving the cause of human suffering inside the individual.
As a theoretical topic for any psychodramatic work on the issue of death, four universalities of Moreno were assumed: time, place (for example the scene), space and reality (surplus reality). They are considered from an objective/physical perspective as well as from the subjective/mental/internal perspective, and also from the perspective of the pathology of experiencing it.
A discussion of the issues of the therapeutic goals on the subject of death, understood as encountering the death of a relative or someone close, as well as coming face to face with one's own death conclude the theoretical part of this work.
The clinical part of the work, which will be published in the upcoming issue of "Psychoterpia" will provide examples of psychodramas with patients which lead to the integration and their own rebirth in all of the forementioned dimensions.
O zastosowaniu psychodramy w kursie przygotowawczym dla par planujących małżeństwo. Przygotowanie do nowej życiowej roli 51
Use of psychodrama in preparing for marriage 51
If marriage is to "act in concert", one must dare to look inside the partner and to face the vision of onself he or she may have.
This exercise is not to enforce on each other what I or you think is right, but actually to make honest efforts to reshape and update the image we have of each other. This is possible on condition that both parts are strongly motivated to move together in the same direction when creating their future family. The lecture will expalain how, during the obligatory course in preparation for marriage, given by the family care centre in Oslo, we try to enhance this deep mutual understanding by applying psychodrama techniques, some of them theoretically grounded on the phenomenological and dialectical personality model by Prof. Leni Verhofstadt-Deneve (Ghent University, Belgium).
Korekta dysfunkcjonalnych schematów zachowania (KDSZ) jako narzędzie pracy psychoterapeutycznej z niewidomymi pacjentami 61
Correction of Dysfunctional Behavior Schemes as a method of work with blind people 61
The author presents his own psychotherapy method which he called Correction of Dysfunctional Behaviour Schemes. Although most experiences with the method have been obtained in his psychotherapeutic practice with blind people and especially patients who lost vision and could not cope with problems they encountered, the method turned out to be efficacious in work with other patients, mainly those affected with neurotic disorders.
The use of the presented method of mental rehabilitation allows for a change in the dysfunctional attitudes and schemes. The patient becomes able to respond more adequately and flexibly to the situations experienced.
The method, owing to the therapist's suggestion, aims at directing the patient's functioning in such a way as to reduce dispensable tension and to enable a satisfying coping with different situations and efficient carrying out of life goals. Further studies on the efficiency of the method are in progress.