PSYCHOTERAPIA       ISSN 0239-4170

3 (130)

Psychoterapia 3/2004


Fiona Palmer Barnes
Kodeksy etyki i etyka postępowania  5
Codes of ethics and ethical practice  5

Summary
In this chapter I argue that analytic organizations frequently do not differentiate between statements of ethical principles and codes of professional practice. As psychotherapists we often assume that we share a common ethos, that each and everyone of us knows the ethical basis of our work. But is this so? What informs our individual ethical stance? How do we define a common ethical attitude whilst allowing for the individuality of practice? How do we set out the necessary and sufficient rules to regulate the profession? Ethical Attitudes are multiformed and multi-faceted. They form in individuals and groups through the conscious and unconscious influences of culture and society; they create an ethos of analytic societies and the analysts within them. Time is needed within organizations to discuss issues where there will be a variety of views and feelings among the membership. If we do not know what we believe in we are in an illusory world. Ethical illusion masks profound uncertainty and this in turn will be reflected, in our organizations, with one another and in our work with patients.

Iwona Kozłowska-Piwowarczyk
Ku sztuce istnienia. Refleksje nad Ericha Fromma koncepcją psychoterapii  15
Towards the art of living. Some reflections on Erich Fromm's concept of psychotherapy  15

Summary
This article is an attempt to sum up all the major thoughts included in Erich Fromm's concept, which are useful for slightly a different point of view in psychotherapy nowadays. Fromm suggests applying psychoanalysis as a method widening the self-consciousness not only for therapy but also to improve one's comfort of being. The author who agrees with Fromm's and Bateson's ideas, emphasizes the human being as a part of nature gifted with self-consciousness in its constant process of development. Concerning the psychotherapy methods (including psychoanalysis) as the most useful for development of specifically human powers - love and mind- the author suggests a reflection on conditions of human development in directions called by Fromm as biophilic and necrophilic.

Barbara Józefik, Małgorzata Wolska
Kontekst skierowania do leczenia i przebieg konsultacji rodzinnej a gotowość podjęcia terapii rodzinnej  25
The familial and social context, family consultation of patients and their families referred to the Family Therapy Unit of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of CM UJ, Kraków.  25

Summary
The aim of the study was to analyse the familial and social context of the patients and their families referred to the Family Therapy Unit of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of CM UJ, Kraków. The study was based on the first referral interview and the first consultation family session. The assumption was that the obtained results allow us to describe which families and social factors are connected with the motivation towards the treatment based on family therapy. The results of the study show that motivation to participate in family therapy is connected with short duration of the illness and proper referrals (by psychiatrist or other specialist). Also parents' feelings of helplessness in dealing with their child's problem, and partly the specificity of their child's symptoms play a vital role. In the case when the problems and symptoms lasted more than 2 years, even when a family participates in a family consultation, family members are not ready to start family therapy. It can be said that the patient's problems and symptom chronicity is maintained by parents' and patients' difficulties in understanding the psychological, family and social context of the symptoms, medical model of the illness, late searching for professional help in solving problems.

Monika Bąk-Sosnowska, Anna Trzcieniecka-Green, Barbara Zahorska-Markiewicz
Ekspresja obrazu własnego ciała u osób otyłych na podstawie analizy porównawczej rysunku człowieka i rysunku siebie  37
The expression of the body image in obese patients based on the comparative analysis of drawings  37

Summary
The image of the body is a part of the general image of the self. It forms a mental, visual representation of the body and contains an emotional component, crucial for the attitude to one's own body. It can change or become distorted by significant changes in appearance. A drawing is one of the expressive projection methods. In the presented study it was assumed that two kinds of drawings: The Drawing of a Man and The Drawing of Self represent: subconscious self - projection and realistic self - portrait. It was also assumed, that its accuracy is advantageous in the process of weight loss. The aim of this study was to compare both drawings made by obese persons and to check how similar they are with regard to the body size. Method and Material: The participants were 24 obese persons, subscribed to a slimming programme. The average age was 42.1+- 11.1 and the average body weight was 101.5 +- 5.4 kg. , i.e. BMI=38.8 +- 5.4. They were asked to draw a figure of a man and two weeks later the figure of self. In both cases they had a blank piece of paper and a pen. Time was unlimited and they did not have additional instructions about the appearance of the drawings. Results: Among the 24 Drawings of a Man 21 (87.5%) were assessed as slim and 3 (12.5%) as obese. The Drawings of a Man presented: a grown-up of the same gender as author, a grown-up of the opposite gender, a child and a matrix of a human. Among the Drawings of Self there were 3 (12.5%) slim and 21 (87.5%) obese. The pairs of drawings were divided into 4 categories: slim-obese (79.16%), obese-obese (8.33%), slim-slim (8.33%) and obese-slim (4.16%). Conclusions: 1. In the Drawing of a man, the majority of the obese created a non adequate figure with regard to the body size, and drew a slim figure. 2. In the Drawing of the Self, the majority of the obese adequately assessed their own appearance and drew an obese person as self.

Grzegorz Iniewicz
Samokontrola i jej uwarunkowania u dziewcząt chorujących na anoreksję psychiczną  45
Self-control and its conditions in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa  45

Summary
The article presents data concerning self-control and its conditions in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Self-control seems to be one of the most important psychological mechanisms which take place in the onset and in maintaining of the disorder. It is confirmed by etiological models of anorexia. 30 adolescent girls suffering from anorexia nervosa according to DSM-IV and 30 adolescent girls without eating problems completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire for Adolescents and the Questionnaire of Self-control in upbringing. Research confirmed the assumption referring to weaker self-control in anorectic girls and stronger control of fulfilling social demands.

Kamilla Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Anna Trzcieniecka-Green, Krzysztof Kielan
Ocena poznawcza a strategie zaradcze podejmowane w obliczu egzaminu  55
Cognitive appraisal and strategies of coping applied in an exam situation   55

Summary:
The presented research concerns the influence of cognitive appraisal upon the process of coping with examination stress. Cognitive appraisal of the exam situation as a challenge results in application of strategies directly confronting the stress situation. These can be: creating a schedule of preparations for an exam, activity according to a plan, instrumental preparing for an exam. Appraisal of a situation as a threat helps application of ways of coping involving diverting attention off a stressor and one's own reactions. Here we should mention: wishful thinking and searching for social support. This type of cognitive appraisal also contributes to minimalisation of the problem and reduction of stress. Intermediary influence of the coping strategy, between cognitive appraisal of a situation and the examination result has also been noted. On the basis of analysis of relations between variables presented in this study we may conclude that in a situation of examination stress, cognitive appraisal of a situation plays a significant role in the process of coping with stress.

Magdalena Sariusz-Skąpska, Marcin Siwek, Dominika Dudek
Rola psychoterapii poznawczo-behawioralnej w leczeniu choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej  63
The role of cognitive - behavioural therapy in the treatment of the bipolar disorder  63

Summary
The paper explains the role of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Indications for complementation of a standard pharmacological treatment with psychotherapy and variety of psychotherapeutic approaches characteristic for bipolar disorder are presented. In the context of cognitive factors identified in patients with bipolar disorder, the cognitive-behavioural approach is analyzed. Authors present a review of research confirming the efficiency of the cognitive-behavioural approach as an integral part of the therapeutic process in bipolar disorder.

Bogdan de Barbaro, Barbara Józefik, Krzysztof Szwajca
Problem żydowski? Problem polski? Refleksje nad procesem grupowym krakowskich psychoterapeutów  73
A Jewish problem? A Polish problem? Some reflections on the group process of psychotherapists in Kraków.  73

Summary
The below mentioned reflections deal with a group process that took place among the participants of the meeting organized by the Polish-Israeli Mental Health Association. The group was formed in the end of 2002. It was inspired by the conferences organized in Israel and Poland. The process is worth mentioning since it was not only emotionally and cognitively important for the participants but it was also a reflection, maybe a metaphor, of the phenomena which take place on a larger scale.

Jerzy A. Sobański
Zmiany objawów zaburzeń nerwicowych podczas intensywnej psychoterapii w oddziale dziennym i ich związek z wynikami leczenia. Przegląd piśmiennictwa   81
Change in neurotic symptoms during intensive psychotherapy in a day hospital. Literature review  81

Summary
Review of literature focused on neurotic symptom change during psychotherapy and its relation to treatment outcome. Faster improvement of particular neurotic complaints may be understood as an additional marker of a beneficial therapy processes, but temporary symptom exacerbations are not informative on bad prognosis, which may be inferred from symptom plateau's.

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ISSN 0239-4170 (Print)

ISSN 2391-5862 (Online)

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