PSYCHOTERAPIA       ISSN 0239-4170




















































































Psychoterapia 2 (177) 2016
strony: 5-16
Z cyklu: Sylwetki psychoterapeutów. W życiu ważne jest utrzymanie równowagi i wtedy można wiele znieść. Rozmowa z Bożeną Winch — psychoterapeutką, psychoonkologiem

Psychoterapia 2 (177) 2016
strony: 17-28
Krzysztof Klajs
Jay Haley — twórca strategicznej terapii rodzin
FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT: Jay Haley — pioneer in strategic family therapy
introduced new useful terms to the therapeutic practice: stages of family life, perverse triangle, paradox and double bind. It is especially the double bind that helps understand the ongoing communication difficulties within families. Moreover, Haley defined some basic recommendations for family therapists: the necessity to work in a good cooperating team, permanent access to group supervision, and the necessity to plan and foresee the systemic results of one's own activity.
keywords: double-bind, strategic family therapy

PSYCHOTERAPIA 2 (177) 2016
strony: 29-42
Jakub Przybyła
Neurobiologiczne podstawy psychoterapii
FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT: Neurobiological foundations of psychotherapy
Autor przedstawia wyniki badań neuronauki oraz neuropsychoanalizy, które wspierają empirycznie liczne konceptualizacje zjawisk klinicznych dotyczących funkcjonowania człowieka oraz relacji terapeutycznej, jakich dokonała psychoanaliza. Celem tekstu nie jest redukcja jednej dziedziny wiedzy do drugiej, ale zarysowanie znaczenia współpracy na polu badań nad funkcjonowaniem ludzkiego umysłu i mózgu.
The author presents the results of neuroscience, and neuropsychoanalysis that support empirically many conceptualizations made by psychoanalysis of clinical phenomena related to human functioning, and the therapeutic relationship. The purpose of the text is not a reduction one field of knowledge to another, but an emphasis the importance of cooperation in the fields of research on the functioning of the human mind and brain. In this sense, the author refers to the main principles of the new field of knowledge, which is neuropsychoanalysis. The text attempts to look at the phenomenon of psychopathology and psychotherapy through the prism of the latest neuroscience research. In particular, the paper mentions the issue of system of memory and learning, the question of intersubjectivity, and the mirror neuron system, as well as a description of the neurobehavioral PLAY system. The text discusses the concepts and ideas of various neuroscientists, as well as theoreticians
and practitioners of psychoanalysis: J. Panksepp, V. Ramachandran, D. Stern, D. Winnicott, W. Bion, T. Ogden. In the last part of the article presents the TFP treatment developed by Otto Kernberg and his team, as a method that specifically implements the conclusions of neuroscience.
keywords: neuropsychoanalysis, psychoanalysis

PSYCHOTERAPIA 2 (177) 2016
strony: 43-56
Wiesław Sikorski
Mechanizm neuroplastyczności i jego znaczenie dla psychoterapii oraz oceny jej skuteczności
The mechanism of neuroplasticity and significance for psychotherapy and the evaluation of its effectiveness
Autor — korzystając z bogatego piśmiennictwa — odnosi wyniki badań na temat mechanizmów neuroplastyczności do wybranych aspektów psychoterapii. Wskazuje także, w jakich obszarach neuronauka pozwala formułować sugestie dotyczące praktyki psychoterapeutycznej oraz weryfikować biologiczne mechanizmy wpływające na jej skuteczność.
The paper introduces the mechanism of neuroplasticity, specifically the ability of the brain to develop new neurons (neurogenesis) and new connections between nerve cells (synaptogenesis) and to develop glial cells. The author presents the evidence proving the existence of neuroplasticity by giving examples of people with serious brain damage who function normally and, above all, of people living with almost no brain or with one hemisphere, or with post-stroke defects. However,
the main purpose of this paper is to present the current state of knowledge of the importance of the brain plasticity for the course of psychotherapy, as well as for assessing its effectiveness. The author gives many examples which seem to lend credence to the proposition that recognized psychotherapies (mainly psychodynamic, interpersonal, and cognitive-behavioral ones) actually alter the brain in patients beneficially suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, depression, or panic disorder. These changes most frequently occur in the amygdala and the caudate nucleus (responsible for emotions and learning), the hippocampus (responsible for memory and spatial orientation) and the prefrontal cortex (responsible for planning and behavior modification).The final part of the paper comprises the content concerning the pharmacological support of the cognitive behavioral therapy aimed at „plasticizing” memory taking „erasing” traumatic memories into consideration.
keywords: neuroplasticity, brain damage, psychotherapy

PSYCHOTERAPIA 2 (177) 2016
strony: 57-67
Mariusz Furgał, Bernadetta Janusz
Doświadczanie impasu w terapii par osób z przewagą pierwotnych mechanizmów obronnych. Między bezradnością a szansą na rozwój i zmianę
FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT: The experience of the impasse in the therapy of the couples of persons with primary defense mechanisms domination. Between helplessness and a chance for the change and development
Artykuł ilustruje znaczenie uwzględniania w procesie psychoterapii, szczególnie w sytuacjach impasu, różnych paradygmatów. W oparciu o przykłady kliniczne autorzy opisują źródła i mechanizmy trudności napotykanych w terapii par. Niezwykle istotne może być wówczas dostrzeganie i rozumienie pojawiających się reakcji przeciwprzeniesieniowych.
The authors address their article to the understanding of the impasse in the work with the couples in which we have to deal with the defense mechanisms like splitting, or projective identification, often connected with personality disorders. This kind of couples is characterized by recurrent acting out of conflicts. The paper presents systemic and psychoanalytic (mainly in the object relation theory) perspectives as the basic theoretical framework for the analysis of described phenomena. It presents to the concept of personality disorders diagnosis in the setting of the couple therapy. It presents how the relation can change the diagnostic impressions of the personality structure and how it leads to problematic clinical situations. The paper presented case vignettes illustrates changing role of the therapist in consecutive stages of the therapy. They show the impasse in the therapeutic process and the ways how the therapist is dealing with the problem. The therapist of these couples struggles with many dilemmas and a recurrent question concerning the continuation of the treatment. In the summation authors conclude on the practical use of the systemic and psychoanalytic paradigm in the analyzed clinical situations.
keywords: couple therapy, personality disorders, impasse

PSYCHOTERAPIA 2 (177) 2016
strony: 69-82
Ewa Wojtynkiewicz
Uzależnienie od alkoholu z perspektywy teoriiprzywiązania — studium przypadku
FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT: Alcohol addiction from the attachment theory point of view — a case study
W artykule przedstawione jest studium przypadku dorosłego pacjenta uzależnionego od alkoholu, który odbył psychoterapię indywidualną, prowadzoną w podejściu psychodynamicznym. Rozumienie problemów pacjenta i jego funkcjonowanie w relacjach społecznych opisane są w kontekście teorii przywiązania.
Addiction to alcohol in terms of the attachment theory is considered to be a reaction to the disorders concerning the attachment and it is highly probable that the alcohol abuse will develop among people with insecure attachment styles, as it is indicated in quantitative research results. It is often claimed that the addict’s basic problem is the inability to internalize an experience of having proper relationship with others, which – assuming that the main function of the attachment is the
acquirement of emotion regulation skills – makes it impossible for the person addicted to rely on his/her own internal resources or on any human attachment figure. The psychoactive substance appears to be a substitute for the secure base, a new attachment figure which is associated with the feelings of being cared and soothed.The article comprises, in the view of the attachment theory, a case study of a patient addicted to alcohol who is treated in an individual psychodynamic therapy.The presented case study stands for an attempt to understand the life story, attachment relationships, identity and the addiction of the patient in the context of the attachment theory tenets. The presented case study stands for an attempt to understand the life story, attachment relationships, identity and the addiction of the patient in the context of the attachment theory tenets.
keywords: alcohol addiction, attachment theory

Psychoterapia 2 (177) 2016
strony: 87-99
Aleksandra Katarzyna Tomasiewicz, Feliks Matusiak, Bartosz Treger
Doświadczenie traumy a percepcja więzi. Porównanie grup młodzieży hospitalizowanej w psychiatrycznym oddziale stacjonarnym z młodzieżą nieleczoną
The experience of trauma and the attachement perception: a comparison of hospitalized adolescents with untreated ones
Celem pracy była próba przedstawienia powiązań pomiędzy doświadczeniem traumy w relacji z rodzicami a percepcją więzi u młodzieży, która w związku z kryzysem psychicznym została hospitalizowana w stacjonarnym oddziale psychiatrycznym. Określenie różnic było możliwe dzięki porównaniu grupy klinicznej z grupą młodzieży nieleczonej. Istotne było również zastosowanie narzędzia dotyczącego wydarzeń traumatycznych (CTQ).
Aim: To bring us closer the problem of interaction between the experience of trauma in relationship with parents and perception of attachment of adolescent patients from a psychiatric hospital. To compare two groups — clinical with untreated
Method: Seventy people were examined. The clinical group consisted of thirty inpatients of child and adolescent psychiatric hospital. The control group consisted of forty secondary school students. The method was based on the use of questionnaires to survey the perception of relationships (PBI) and trauma (CTQ).
Results: The study showed difference in traumatic experiences between adolescent patients of a psychiatric hospital and the control group. The study identified more emotional neglect in clinical group. The study identified a slight difference in attachment perception. The study indicated connection between trauma and the perception of attachment.
Conclusions: The reporting of trauma, signification of traumatic experience and perception of parental protection are relevant factors in risk of psychiatric hospitalization in adolescence.
keywords: trauma, attachment, adolescents

Psychoterapia 2 (177) 2016
strony: 97-109
Maciej Śnieżyński, Marek Błażewicz
Pomoc psychospołeczna a perspektywa płci. Obraz kobiety i mężczyzny u osób zajmujących się profesjonalną pomocą psychospołeczną i wpływ tego obrazu na czynności profesjonalne
FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT: Psychosocial support and gender perspective. Image of a woman and a man with those involved in professional psychosocial assistance and the impact of this image on professional activities
Autorzy na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań wskazują na wpływ płci pacjenta i płci terapeuty na podejmowane czynności kliniczne. Artykuł może nieść praktyczne implikacje, sugerując uwzględnienie problematyki gender bias podczas szkoleń terapeutów oraz specjalizacji klinicznej.
Depending on experimental condition, the same clinical case was presented as a case of female or male patient. Afterwards, several questions addressing severity of patient problems and therapeutic recommendations were asked. Moderators: ambivalent sexism and authoritarianism (RWA). Experimental design: between-subjects ANOVA in 2 (gender of specialist) x 2 (gender of patient) design. Results: N 74 (44F and 30M), participants were professionals in psychological help. Female professionals similarly evaluated patients of both sexes, whereas male therapists revealed systematic error - gender bias: despite the same symptoms, they evaluated psychological malfunctioning of a female patient as significantly worse than the male patient, and recommend more intense treatment for the former. The above interactions were not moderated by the ambivalent sexism or right-wing authoritarianism. Conclusions: 1. Professionals of both sexes share androcentric (agentic) model of mental health, 2. Male professions may tend to perceive similar symptoms of psychological malfunctioning as less serious in men, 3. The fact that the discussed gender bias in clinical judgment was found only among male professions may indicate an existence of ingroup bias. Perhaps, male professionals tend to infer highly positive agentic traits in male patients, because male professionals and male patients belong to the same gender category.
keywords: gender bias, clinician assessment and diagnosis, psychosocial helping

Psychoterapia 2 (177) 2016
strony: 111-122
Katarzyna Cyranka, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Michał Mielimąka
Zastosowanie polskiej adaptacji kwestionariusza MMPI-2 w diagnostyce i monitorowaniu skuteczności psychoterapii pacjentów z zaburzeniami nerwicowymi i osobowości
FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT: Applicability of Polish adaptation of MMPI-2 questionnaire in diagnosis and monitoring of psychotherapy effectiveness of patients with neurotic and personality disorders
Artykuł opisuje przeprowadzenie pionierskiego w Polsce badania z zastosowaniem nowej polskiej wersji Minnesockiego Wielowymiarowego Kwestionariusza Osobowości. Okazał się on użytecznym narzędziem w monitorowaniu procesu psychoterapii pacjentów cierpiących z powodu zaburzeń nerwicowych i zaburzeń osobowości, co wydaje się szczególnie istotne z punktu widzenia planowania follow-up i badań międzyośrodkowych.
Development by the Psychological Test Laboratory of the Polish Psychological Association the first fully standardized version of the questionnaire MMPI-2 has opened the possibility of conducting with its use pioneering research in the clinical context in Polish population of patients with neurotic and personality disorders. The conducted research has shown that in the majority of patients eligible for treatment for neurotic and personality disorders in measurement obtained at the beginning of therapy
the results indicating neurotic symptoms and disturbance of personality functioning are significantly higher than in the healthy population. Polish version of the MMPI-2 proved to be in this respect a useful tool in the diagnosis of neurotic and personality disorders. As a result of group psychotherapy with elements of individual psychotherapy in most patients profound reduction in the level of neurotic symptoms as well as deep positive change in personality functioning have been observed.
Application of the new Polish version of MMPI-2 proved to be useful in monitoring the psychotherapy process of patients suffering from neurotic disorders and personality disorders, which seems to be particularly important from the point of view of planning the follow-up and multi-center research.
keywords: neurotic disorders, MMPI-2 questionaire, psychotherapy effeciveness

Psychoterapia 2 (177) 2016
strony: 123–127
Józef Krzysztof Gierowski
Omówienie książki:
Grzegorz Iniewicz. Stres mniejszościowy u osób biseksualnych  i homoseksualnych. W poszukiwaniu czynników ryzyka
i czynników chroniących. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 2015, stron 261.

ISSN 0239-4170 (Print)

ISSN 2391-5862 (Online)

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